The Thrift Savings Plan, or TSP, is the Federal government’s version of a 401(k) plan. It shares the following characteristics with many 401(k) plans:
- Both a traditional option and a Roth option. Contributions to the traditional option reduce your taxable salary, but any future withdrawals are treated as taxable income. Roth option contributions are not tax deductible, but future withdrawals aren’t taxed.
- Limits on contributions are equivalent to those for 401(k) plans. For 2018, that amount is $18,500 plus an additional catch-up contribution of $6,000 for employees age 50 or older.
- Once you leave the Federal Government, your TSP account can be rolled over into an IRA or a Roth IRA
- The Thrift Savings Plan has provisions covering both in-service distributions (i.e., withdrawals while you are still working) and loans. While we think it’s best to avoid taking funds from your retirement accounts, if you must do so, loans are a much more tax efficient way to draw from the TSP assuming the loan is repaid according to schedule.
There are some differences between the TSP and many 401(k) plans. Those are as follows:
- Two criticisms of 401(k) plans in recent years are that the costs for many are difficult to determine and they are higher than they should be. Retirement plan fees result from administrative fees as well as fees for the investment options. TSP admin fees are relatively low and the investment options are broad based, low-cost index funds. As a result, overall the TSP is a low-cost plan.
- Many 401(k) plans offer a variety of investment options, and some even offer an “open platform” that includes thousands of funds. Options in the TSP are limited, so if you are looking to invest with a particular manager or fund family, or if you are pursuing a more esoteric strategy, you won’t be able to do so via the TSP investments.
- The Federal government provides a 1% automatic contribution to the TSP, and they’ll match up to an additional 4% of your salary if you make a 5% contribution. The total match of 5% is more generous than many 401(k) plans, and when you consider the FERS contributions that are made as well, retirement benefits compare very favorably to the private sector.
- Once you reach retirement, you are allowed one partial withdrawal. This is too restrictive for many retirees, and they opt to roll their funds to an IRA from which they can withdraw as needed.
Overall, the Thrift Savings Plan compares favorably to 401(k) plans, and if you work for the Federal government and can participate, it very likely makes sense to do so. It serves as a solid adjunct to the FERS pension, and the combination of the TSP and FERS can provide a solid foundation for retirement.